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Useful Links for Neotropical Flowering Plant Identification

This page is no longer being updated (December 2012). Please access the new updated version HERE.

Thank you!


GENERAL REFERENCES          SPECIMEN DATABASES    TAXON SITES    FLORAS    GEOGRAPHY

FLOWERING PLANT FAMILY CLASSIFICATION
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
      A continuously updated reference on the current classification of flowering plant families, in accordance with the APGIII System. Maintained by Peter Stevens, Missouri Botanical Garden. Includes full bibliography, discussion, maps.

The Families of Flowering Plants (Watson & Dallwitz, 1992+)
      Useful reference for flowering plant family descriptions, following a pre-APG classification. An electronic key is also available.

Tree of Life
      Website illustrating the tree of relationships joining all groups of organisms. Some plant families have well-developed pages with photos, some not.

GENERAL FAMILY IDENTIFICATION RESOURCES
Tropical Plant Field Guides
      A wide assortment of downloadable color field guides, Dept. of Environment Culture and Conservation, Field Museum of Natural History
Neotropical Live Plant Photos (ECCo, Field Museum of Natural History)
Neotropical Plants Image Database (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew)
Neotropikey (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew)
      Interactive flowering plant family key, plus excellent synopses and genus lists for most neotropical flowering plant families. At last check (Dec 2010) not all families were covered, and some reflect older classifications (APG2 instead of APG3).
University of Hawaii Tropical Flowering Plant Family Images

Plants of Hawaii by Forest & Kim Starr
PlantSystematics.org
       Cornell University and New York Botanical Garden. Searchable images, cladograms and keys
Glossary of Terms for Vascular Plants (New York Botanical Garden, S.Mori and N. Smith)
      
SPECIES AND FAMILY NAME INDEXES
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, & plants (ICN) (Melbourne Code, 2012)
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code, 2006; superceded by Melbourne Code, but contains full Appendices)
      The legal code governing legitimate publication of a name or determination of the correct usage of a name.
International Plant Names Index (IPNI)
      The authoritative bibliographic source for all published names of Seed Plants, Ferns, and Lycophytes.
The Plant List, Kew
      This list aims to provide a complete account of scientifically accepted names and synonymy of vascular plants and bryophytes worldwide. It combines data from TROPICOS, IPNI and the Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, but otherwise does not cite references.
TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Garden
      Nomenclature database incomplete, focusing on areas of MO's active flora projects; however all synonymies are linked to literature references, which is tremendously useful! Caveat: For references which place a name in synonymy see tab "Accepted Names." For references which accept the name, see tab "References."
Concordance of Angiosperm Family Names
      Searchable index of flowering plant families, according to their treatment in several recent classification systems. By James Reveal / USDA.

SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE
Kew Bibliographic Database
     Literature on plant taxonomy (1971-2007 only). Since 2007 only references on micromorphology and economic botany are updated.
Index to American Botanical Literature
      Botanical literature index pertaining to plants and fungi of the Western Hemisphere (published late 1995 onward).
TROPICOS Literature Database
      Extensive but eclectic in coverage.
Biodiversity Heritage Library
     Contains older scanned literature, as well as some fairly recent journals. A steadily growing archive.
Hathi Trust Digital Library
      A huge online repository of archives and scholarly literature. Rapid search for text within articles. Fabulous.
Springer Images
       Open access to illustrations of new species (and other figures) in articles from Springer publications.

MISCELLANEOUS
Index Herbariorum
      An index to all herbaria worldwide, including websites, staff, and staff research specialties. Hosted by New York Botanical Garden
JSTOR Plant Science
     An archive of multiple information sources. Many type specimen photos from participating herbaria.
HUH Databases
     (1) an index of plant collectors and plant name authors, worldwide. (2) an index of Botanical Publications. From Harvard University Herbaria.
Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project
      A project to verify the identity of all the plants described by Linnaeus (British Museum)
IABIN (Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network; Red Interamericana de Información sobre Biodiversidad)
Sociedade Botânico do Brasil
      Useful links for Brazilian botany

"CAVEAT: IPNI, JSTOR Plant Science, TROPICOS and their ilk, were compiled by mortals, not the deity. . . . . these websites are starting points, not truths handed down from heaven." -- Christiane Anderson, in Guidelines for Preparing a Botanical Monograph.


                                                                                                                                                   
SEARCHABLE SPECIMEN DATABASES
HERBARIUM CONSORTIA                                                                                                               back to top
Brazilian Natural History Collections "speciesLink"
INCT - Herbário Virtual da Flora e dos Fungos (Brasil)
     Associated with "speciesLink," but including only plant and fungus collections of Brazil. Includes links to specimen images from participating herbaria. New in Sept 2011 and growing.
GBIF Data Portal -- Global Biodiversity Information Facility
     Collection data searchable by species and country, from various contributing herbaria. Mapping by Google Earth.
JSTOR herbaria

     Worldwide archive of type specimen images only, from several of the herbaria listed below.
CONABIO (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad - MEXICO)
     Collective archive of specimen images from Mexico, from many cooperating herbaria
SEINET (Southwest Environmental Information Network)
     Specimen data and images from numerous herbaria of Southwestern USA and Mexico. Quick loading and easy to use.
TROPICOS (Missouri Botanical Garden)
     Massive resources, including all specimens from MO; specimens from many cooperating herbaria; images; literature references.

EUROPEAN HERBARIA
AAU (Aarhus)
B (Berlin)
BM (British Museum)
BR (Brussels)
     Many types from the Flora Brasiliensis
C (Copenhagen)
E (Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh)
     A beautifully designed website
G (Geneve)
GB (Univ. Gothenburg, Sweden)
GOET (Goettingen, Germany)
GZU-HAL-JE-W-WU (Graz, Halle, Jena, Vienna)
K (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew)
L-U-WAG  (Leiden-Utrecht-Wageningen, The Netherlands)
M (Botanische Staatssammlung München - Munich)
     Link to digitization info only; vascular plant scans are on JSTOR
MPU (Montpellier Université, France)
OXF (Oxford University Herbaria)
P  (Paris)
P-Lamarck  (Paris, Lamarck Herbarium)
S (Stockholm)
Swiss Orchid Foundation, Basel
Z (Zürich)

NORTH AMERICAN HERBARIA
BRIT (Botanical Research Institute of Texas)
     Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program, much material from SE Peru
FLAS (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville)
F (Field Museum, Botany Dept., Chicago)
     Featuring types; pre-war Berlin photos; flora of Lomas of Peru & Chile; flora of Veracruz, Mexico
F (Field Museum, Neotropical Herbarium Specimens reference collection, ECCo)
      A set of images representing a broad range of neotropical taxa; designed to expedite identification for non-taxonomic specialists. Covers all of the Neotropics, with strengths in Southern Central America, the Andes, and the eastern base of the Andes
FTG (Fairchild Tropical Garden)
HUH (Harvard)
MICH  (University of Michigan)
MO (Missouri Botanical Garden)
NA (US National Arboretum types, USDA)
NY (New York Botanical Garden)
      In addition to types, includes all specimen records from Central and Northeastern Brazil, many imaged.
TEX (University of Texas)
UC (University of California-Berkeley)
US (Smithsonian Institution)
       List of plant groups which have been databased at US

LATIN AMERICAN HERBARIA
Costa Rica
INBio  (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica)
JBL (Jardín Botánico Lankester)
Panamá
STRI  (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panamá)

Brazil
INCT - Herbário Virtual da Flora e dos Fungos (Brasil)
     Associated with "speciesLink," but including only plant and fungus collections of Brazil. Includes links to specimen images from many participating herbaria worldwide. New in Sept 2011 and growing.
IAC (Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, São Paulo)
SP (Instituto de Botânico, São Paulo)
UB (Universidade de Brasília)
UNICAMP (Universidade Estadual de Campinas, São Paulo)
Colombia
COAH (Herbário Amazonico Colombiano, Inst. Amaz. de Investigaciones Cientificas SINCHI, Bogotá)
COL (Herbario Nacional Colombiano)
MEDEL (Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Medellín)
UDBC (Universidad Distrital, Santa Fe de Bogotá)
French Guiana
CAY (Herbier de Guyane; Cayenne, French Guiana)

 


                                                                                                                                                  
PLANT FAMILIES & SPECIAL GROUPS
                                                                                                                                             
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Neoaquatica
      Database of Vascular Plant Species Associated with Neotropical Wetlands. Based on research of Nur Ritter.

International Bulb Society
      Mostly horticultural interest, but with a large image database searchable by scientific name

International Carnivorous Plant Society
      Includes Carnivorous Plant Names Database

The Parasitic Plant Connection
       By Dan Nickrent, Southern Illinois University. Especially helpful for the recently revised taxonomy of the Santalales.

Bihrmann's Caudex
       Private website on caudiciform plants - plants with swollen water-storing stems. Horticultural emphasis.

FDA Poisonous Plants Database (bibliographic citations) & Poisonous Vascular Plants list (compiled from literature 1994-1996)

ANACARDIACEAE: Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae (BKL, NY)
APIACEAE: Umbellifer Resource Center (Kew)
APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae, Secamonoideae, & Periplocoideae (Liede & Meve, Univ. Bayreuth)
ARACEAE: CATE-Araceae
ARECACEAE: Palm Base Portal (Aarhus, Denmark)
ASTERACEAE: Espeletia Project (M. Diazgranados, MO)
BERBERIDACEAE: Berberis Checklist (C. Ulloa, MO)
BURSERACEAE: Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae (BKL, NY)
CLUSIACEAE: see Online Identification Keys (V. Bittrich et al., UEC) for keys to Clusiaceae genera and Clusia spp in Brasil
CONVOLVULACEAE: Nomenclator Ipomoeeae (D. Austin); Convolvulaceae Unlimited (ed. G. Staples)
CUCURBITACEAE: Cucurbit Network (T.Andres)
DIOSCOREACEAE: eMonocot Dioscoreaceae (Editor unspecified)
ERIOCAULACEAE: Eriocaulaceae of the Andes (A. Diaz, TEX)
ERYTHROXYLACEAE: Erythroxylum (Field Museum)
EUPHORBIACEAE: Acalypha (J.M.Cardiel), Croton Research Network (hosted by WIS); Euphorbia PBI (P.Berry et al.); Neotropical Euphorbiaceae image gallery (Kew)
FABACEAE: Acacia & allied genera (Joe Miller, Univ. Iowa); The Swartzia Pages (B. Torke & V.F. Mansano, NYBG); Leguminosae do Brasil (images of selected species, Rubens Queiroz)
GENTIANACEAE: Gentian Research Network (Rutgers)
GERANIACEAE: Geranium Taxonomic Information System (C. Aedo)
GESNERIACEAE: World Checklist of Gesneriaceae (Smithsonian)
LAURACEAE: International Lauraceae Working Group (edited by Jens Rohwer)
LECYTHIDACEAE: Lecythidaceae Pages (New York Botanical Garden)
LOASACEAE: The Loasaceae Page (Max Weigend)
MALPIGHIACEAE: Malpighiaceae (Univ. of Michigan)
MALVACEAE: Malvaceae_Info (Stewart Hinsley)
MELASTOMATACEAE: Melastomataceae of the World (D.Penneys, U.Fla.)
MYRTACEAE: Cooperative Taxonomic Resource for American Myrtaceae (ed. L. Landrum, ASU)
ONAGRACEAE: Onagraceae Research (Smithsonian)
ORCHIDACEAE: Epidendra: The Global Orchid Taxonomic Network (Jardín Botánico Lankester & Univ.Nac. de Costa Rica)
OROBANCHACEAE: Agalinis Checklist (Orobanchaceae) (K.Barringer)
PIPERACEAE: Peperomia.Net (G.Mathieu, Belgium)
POACEAE: Catalogue of New World Grasses (searchable, Missouri Botanical Garden)
SAPOTACEAE: Sapotaceae Resource Center (Kew)
SOLANACEAE: Solanaceae Source (British Museum); Solanaceae of Brazil; Jaltomata (Thomas Mione)
ZINGIBERACEAE: Zingiberaceae Resource Center (Kew)
ZINGIBERALES: Zingiberales Research (Smithsonian)


                                                                                                                     
CHECKLISTS AND DIGITAL FLORAS
                                                                                                                 
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NORTH AMERICA
Flora of North America

CARIBBEAN

Flora de Cuba
Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Smithsonian)
Flora of the West Indies (Smithsonian)
Plants of the Eastern Caribbean (Univ. of the West Indies)
Virtual Field Herbarium - Grenada (Oxford, UK)
Plants and Lichens of Saba, Netherlands Antilles (NYBG)

CENTRAL AMERICA & MEXICO

FLORA MESOAMERICANA (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Arboles Tropicales Comunes del Area Maya (Univ. Calif.-Riverside)

BELIZE
Ethnobotany and Floristics of Belize (New York Botanical Garden)

COSTA RICA
La Florula Digital de la Selva
INBio (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad)
Vascular Plants of the Osa Peninsula (NYBG)
Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (MO)

MEXICO
Atlas de la Flora de Veracruz (text download)
Flora: Peninsula de Yucatán (CICY)
Flora of Kaxil Kiuic, Yucatán
Malezas de Mexico

SOUTH AMERICA
ARGENTINA
Flora Argentina
Museo Virtual de la Biodiversidad de la Provincia de Misiones
BOLIVIA
Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia
Flora de la Región del Parque Nacional Amboró
BRAZIL
Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (REFLORA)
Chave interativa para identificação dos gêneros de fanerógamas da Reserva Ducke
Estado de São Paulo, various interactive keys linked here
Flora digital do Rio Grande do Sul
CHILE
Flora de Chilena Nativa en su Habitat (Alain de Trenqualye Howard)
Chilebosque: Flora Nativa de Chile
COLOMBIA
Plantas de Colombia (private blog)
FRENCH GUIANA
Fungal and Plant Diversity of Central and French Guiana
Rice Field Plants of French Guiana
GUIANAS (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)
Virtual Tree Guide of the Guianas
GUYANA
Climbers of Guyana
PARAGUAY
Flora del Paraguay
PERU
Plants of Manu National Park
Digital Flora of Ucayali
Flora de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya-Samiria
URUGUAY
Fotografias de la flora autóctona del Uruguay


PALEOTROPICS
Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants
Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
West African Plants Photo Guide
 


                                                                                                                                                  
GEOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
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Costa Rica - Gazetteer of Plant Collecting Locales
Andes - Mecanismo de Información de Páramos -- includes links to detailed maps for locating paramo collection sites
       also see MO's Gazetteer of Paramo Localities

Ornithological Gazetteers of the Neotropics

       Search at this internet archive for "Ornithological Gazetteer", Media Type = text. Excellent reference for older place names for natural history collections. Full-text formats are easily searchable online or downloadable.

Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection - University of Texas
       Simple downloadable country maps for quick reference, plus useful links.

Statoids
      This website, based on the book Administrative Subdivisions of Countries, by Gwillim Law, documents the names of all administrative divisions (states, provinces, etc.) of countries, worldwide. It is continuously updated by the author, and contains a wealth of historical information.

Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System
      Climate diagrams based on data from weather stations worldwide. From S. Rivas-Martinez, Univ. Compl. Madrid.