Fieldiana - Style Guidelines

Manuscript format

Arrange manuscripts in the order: cover page, table of contents (including lists of figures and tables), abstract, introduction, text, acknowledgments, literature cited, appendices, index, figures, figure captions, and tables. Everything is to be double-spaced when being submitted for review.

Cover page:

On the first sheet, type the information that appears on the front cover of Fieldiana. Use zeros as placeholders for information to be filled in later, such as series no., publication no., and date of publication:


[Series name (Anthropology or Life and Earth Sciences)]

N. S (for Anthropology only) NO. 00

[Title—Boldface and flush left]

[Author/s—If using initials, add space between two initials, e.g., L. D. Lang]


Publication 0000


Below this, please provide a Short (Running) Title of 50 to 70 characters.

Table of Contents:

Type the table of contents to exactly match the contents of your manuscript. The table of contents may not be carried beyond three levels of heads, and you may choose to use only one, leaving out subsequent headings. The table of contents also includes a list of figures (start with the cover image), and list of tables.

The wording in the list of figures is a short statement of what each figure shows. It is not a figure caption. For example, a figure caption that read, “The rocky cliff on the western side of the Mitla Fortress.” would be shortened in the list of figures to, “The Mitla Fortress from the west.” The list of tables may contain the exact table titles or short statements of what the tables show.

Abstract: Brief and to the point. Boldface and center "Abstract" and indent first line of abstract.

Resumen, résumé 

A resumen, résumé, or abstract in any other language may immediately follow the abstract. It should be an exact translation and should be grammatically and orthographically correct (add all of the diacritics). Style this exactly like the abstract. Add a line space between the abstract and the resumen.

Affiliation footnote:

These are rare. They may appear when each chapter of the monograph is by a separate person or group of people.


An introduction to the entire work is not always needed unless you are preparing an edited volume, but you may want to include one. An introduction in this sense is part of the book’s front matter; it does not receive a chapter title and is not always appropriate as a section title.

Materials and methods:

This section is a detailed but concise account of how you conducted your work, including research strategy and field methods. List any abbreviations and definitions of acronyms here. Use standard abbreviations for institution names and collections. See section on abbreviations for more information.

Material examined:

You may decide to list specimens in a separate section or as an appendix. You may include physical details about each specimen and the catalog number, locality, and name of collector.


The headings in the text should match the headings in the table of contents. For clarity, we recommend not exceeding four levels of headings in text. Please follow this format for heads:

Heading 1:

Boldface, initial caps, flush left, and set in 11-point type

Heading 1

Heading 2:

Boldface, italics, initial caps, flush left, and set in 9-point type

Heading 2

Heading 3:

Set in Caps and small caps, set in 9-point type, indent paragraph, add em dash, and then run in text.

HEADING 3—Text follows.

Heading 4 (rare):

Initial caps, indent paragraph, add em dash, and then run in text.

Heading 4—Text follows.

You may use the words "above" and "below" to reference close material; for distant material, however, we recommend identifying the section parenthetically, e.g., “(see earlier discussion under History and Culture).”

Be sure to indicate in your manuscript where you want figures and tables placed. We may have to place them elsewhere due to restrictions of design and page layout. A common problem is too little text and too many display elements (Tables and Figures), in which case we will try to place all figures or all tables in one, two, or three galleries.

In-text citations:

  •  Use author–year style in chronological, then alphabetical, order. Use a comma between author and year. For three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al. (Smith et al., 1963). For two or more citations listed together, separate with semicolons (Smith et al., 1963; Jones, 1999). If citing a chapter in the same edited volume, use "(Smith, this volume).
  •  When there’s more than one reference with the same author/s and date, use letters to distinguish one from the other: (Smith, 1963a) and (Smith, 1963b).
  •  Use ampersands within parentheses but spell out and otherwise: (Smith & Jones, 1963); Smith and Jones (1963).
  •  Personal communications referenced in text: (Heitman, pers. comm.).
  •  Use lowercase when referring to other authors’ figures, tables, plates, or chapters.
  •  When citing direct quotations in the text, include page numbers: (Smith, 1963: 171).
  •  Immediately after the first use of binomial names, taxonomic authorities are the only citations that should appear in parentheses, unless you make it clear that the citation is not an authority.
  •  In manuscripts that describe new species, authorities of taxa discussed in regard to the new species must be included in the literature cited.


Referring to tables and figures in text:

Capitalize Table and Figure. Spell out Figure in text, but use (Fig.) or (Figs.) in parentheses. Use lowercase when referring to other authors’ figures, tables, plates, or chapters.

Taxonomic treatments:

Descriptions, or redescriptions of taxa should begin with the next higher classification, e.g. for a species description, the genus and its authority.   The focal taxon name is centered and in Bold. On the line after the new species name (Genus nspecious n. sp.) please list the figures which illustrate the taxon.  Diagnoses and descriptions should be in telegraphic style.  Rather than state "the tail is long and is strongly bicolored with a black tip", use "Tail: long, Strongly bicolored, tip black."  All authorities of pertinent taxa, including the next higher classification and species to which the focal taxon is being compared must be included in the Literature Cited.


Don’t use them. The Fieldiana format is simply not appropriate for footnotes or endnotes.


Acknowledgments are limited to three kinds: financial support, professional assistance (loan of specimens, use of research facilities, field assistance, etc.), and truly exceptional personal contributions. The acknowledgments should be placed before the literature cited section.

Literature Cited:

  •  Use the head Literature Cited, not References.
  •  Use author–year style, with references ordered strictly alphabetically. Author names should be capitalized, then formatted to small caps.  This is not clear on the web page.  Please verify by looking at a recent volume, either in hard copy or pdf. 
  •  Spell out names of all journals and book publishers.
  •  Use a single 3-em dash for an exact repetition of author or authors.
  •  Include a space between two or more author initials: MILLER, W. D.
  •  Capitalize the first letter following a colon for both journal article and book titles.
  •  If you must cite an issue number, use this style: 34(3): 111–113.
  •  Page numbers should be all inclusive: 104–109, not 104–9.
  •  It is not necessary to include total number of pages for books.

It is the author’s responsibility to make sure that all in-text citations have a corresponding entry in the literature cited section and vice versa. Also please make sure that dates and spelling match.



MADIN, L. P., AND G. R. HARBISON. 1978. Salps of the genus Pegea Savigny, 1816

(Tunicata: Thaliacea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 28: 335–344.

MILLER, W. D., AND J. D. BROTHERSON. 1979. Size variation in foot elements of Bison

from Rancho La Brea. Contributions in Science, 323: 1–12.


KROMBEIN, K. V. 1967. Trap-Nesting Wasps and Bees: Life Histories, Nests, and

Associates.Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.


CHAVE, K. E. 1964. Skeletal durability and preservation, pp. 77–187. In Imbrie, J., and

N. Newell, eds., Approaches to Paleoecology, Vol. 11. Wiley, New York.


CARROLL, R. L., AND P. GASKILL. 1994. Osteology of Simosaurus and the

interrelationship of stem-group Sauropterygia (Reptilia, Diapsida). Fieldiana:

Geology, n.s., 28: 1–85.


Appendices follow the literature cited section. Begin the appendix on a new page. If figures or tabular material accompany an appendix (or compose the totality of the appendix), they should be clearly labeled as such. Each appendix should be designated with roman numerals: Appendix I, Appendix II. Lengthy appendices of only indirect relevance to the manuscript may best be made available online instead of printed along with the rest of the volume.

Index The value of your work may be enhanced by an index. Please discuss this with the Editors.  After you check the page proofs, you may use them to create the index. Please supply the index as an electronic file and as double-spaced copy. Include all significant items, taxonomic synonyms, and major topics of discussion.


We refer to all illustrations—line drawings, maps, graphs, and photographs—as figures. Please number them consecutively using Arabic numerals. Fieldiana Anthropology contributions number the figures and tables according to which chapter they belong to: Fig. 1.2 or Table 5.1. In Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences, the figures and tables are numbered consecutively: Fig. 2 or Fig. 5. In edited volumes of Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences, each chapter begins numbering Figures and Tables with "1".  In running text, capitalize and spell out. In parentheses, please use (Fig.) or (Figs.). See Figure captions section in this document for specific caption formatting.

Figure captions should not appear on the figures themselves, but should be grouped together and double-spaced on a separate sheet of paper (or a separate electronic file). Captions should be self-explanatory and should not require reference to the text. The word Figure should be abbreviated and set in small caps, FIG. The captions should be in paragraph style, and the parts of a figure in boldface: (A), (B).

The overall dimensions of Fieldiana are 8.5 by 11 inches. The column and page dimensions are:

Page width (2 columns) 43.5 picas, ~ 7.25 inches

Single column width 21 picas, ~ 3.5 inches

Page height 58 picas, ~ 9.5 inches


Electronic art —Strongly Preferred

  • Halftone and color images should be submitted at desired print size, with no less than 300 pixels per inch (ppi or dpi) resolution. Digital color files must be in CMYK mode. Digital color proofs supplied must be output in CMYK mode. Halftones should have dot end settings of 2% in the lightest are of the image and 98% in the darkest area.
  •  If submitting photographs taken using a digital camera, please use the highest resolution setting option with the least amount of compression. Please refer to your camera’s manual for more information. Please note that images that are downloaded from the internet are usually in JPEG or GIF format and 72 dpi. These are not acceptable for print. If you are unsure, print out the figure and look at its quality.
  •  Line art should be submitted at desired print size, no less than 1200 dpi.
  •  TIFF or EPS file formats are preferred, and may be submitted for both PC and Macintosh platforms. We also accept image files in the following Native Application File Formats: Adobe Photoshop (.psd), Adobe Acrobat (.pdf), Illustrator (.ai), PowerPoint (.ppt), Word (.doc) and Excel (.xls). Files are accepted on CD or DVD.
  • Scale bars should be included in the figure rather than in the figure caption. Final type size of letters on the figure should be no less than 8 point, and should be fairly consistent within the manuscript.

Please include with your submission a directory of the files contained on the disk and a hardcopy printout of each figure. The hardcopy must match the digital file. Please include the screen and printer font files for any text that has been added to the figure. Adobe PostScript fonts should be used. Please do NOT use TrueType or system “bitmap” fonts. To avoid font problems, convert all type to curves or paths. Additional information on digital art specifications is provided by Allen Press at:

Changes in figures that result from unclear author specifications, or for any author-generated reason, will be charged to the author.

Original (hard copy) art:

  • Normally, only copies of original art, photographs, or unique illustrations should be included with an initial submission to Fieldiana.
  •  Size of original artwork should be no less than its reproduction size, and no greater than twice its reproduction size.
  •  All original artwork must be labeled.
  •  Labels should contain the Journal Name, Author, Figure #, MS#, and percentage reduction or final column size desired, and should be filled out legibly using BLACK ink. If the artwork is in color, please indicate on the label whether it is to be reproduced in color or black and white.
  •  Labels should be placed at the tops of figures, no more than ½” from the image area. Removable figure labels should be used. Please keep labels small. Do NOT label or write in ink on the back of the artwork, as it may bleed through upon reproduction.
  •  If assembling multiple pieces of artwork into one plate, the artwork should be mounted on stiff white board, which is less than 1/8” thick. Use a glue stick to mount figures securely. Do not use tape of any kind.
  •  If lettering is required on an image, rub-on transfer letters are preferred over Kroy type. Letters and labels on the figure should be placed at least 1/8” from all edges of the figure. Scale bars should always be included in the figure rather than in the figure caption. Final type size of letters on the figure should be no less than 8 points, and should be fairly consistent within the manuscript.
  •  Half-tone images (such as black and white photographs) should be submitted as close to final size as possible. They must be high contrast and show fine detail.

Additional information on original art specifications may be provided by Allen Press.  Art re-shoots made because the author was not clear in his or her specifications, or for any author-generated reason, will be charged to the author.


Tables should be submitted electronically in a standard software program, with an accompanying printout of each table printed on a separate page. Tables that are especially long should be in their own separate electronic files. Occasionally, tables may be submitted as camera-ready copy. All but camera-ready copy must be double-spaced. If tables are submitted as camera-ready copy, please provide a separate list of table heads. These heads will be typeset conventionally and set with the corresponding tables during production.

Please indicate in your manuscript where you envision the placement of your tables, if it isn’t to be at, or near, the first mention in the text. Tables should be self-explanatory and not require reference to the text.

Tables should be styled as follows:

  • Number tables consecutively with Arabic numbers.
  • Try to keep headings as brief as possible.
  • Use horizontal lines to separate headings or column labels, and add a single line at the bottom of the table. Do not use vertical lines.
  • Double space the entire table
  • 12-point font is preferred. The minimum is 10-point font.
  • Boldface column heads; cap then lowercase.
  • Cap then lowercase stub columns (left most).
  • Be consistent with footnote designators: symbols are the most common (*, †, ‡, §, _, #, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, __, ##, etc.) but letters or numbers may be used for statistical data. Paragraph indent footnotes and use a thin space after designator.
  • Be consistent with treatment of cells with no data; blank cells are okay, or you may insert a hyphen.
  • All tables and figures must fit on a Fieldiana page (8 1/2 x 11 inches) and in the Fieldiana format. It is the responsibility of the authors to split oversize figures and tables into manageable page-size pieces.

Use of Protected Materials—Permissions:

Authors who use previously published materials, in whole or in part, that are under copyright protection, or any other protected material, must submit written permission to use this material in Fieldiana by the stage of final acceptance. Warning! Obtaining written permission may take several months; therefore, we suggest you begin as early as possible.

When an illustration includes an image of a person, the author should, if possible, obtain permission from that individual to publish the image. Copies of any permissions received from individuals regarding the use and publication of their likeness, should be given to the Managing Scientific Editor.

Abbreviations and acronyms:

  •  Spell out terms in full for first appearance in abstract and again for first appearance in text. Do not spell out again in figure captions or tables.
  •  It’s okay to begin a sentence with an acronym, but not an abbreviation.
  •  Use small caps for institutional acronyms: FMNH.


  •  Follow usual rules: run together most prefixes and suffixes, but hyphenate to avoid double vowels (intra-abdominal) and triple consonants (bell-like); but defer to Merriam-Webster’s 11th edition (preempt).
  •  Use an em dash in open or hyphenated compounds: pre–World War II; non–weight-bearing leg. And between two units of equal weight: snout–vent length.
  •  Use regular hyphenation rules for units of measure: a 4-m-thick sandstone block; but a sandstone block 4 m thick (hyphenate adjectives when they appear before the noun).
  •  Hyphenate all -like words.


  •  Spell out Genus species on first mention of each taxon and at the beginning of sentences. Then use G. species. If discussing two genera tht begin with the same letter, carefully assess each use as to whether an initial is sufficiently clear. 
  •  Be consistent when choosing to spell out the genus name with each new species.
  •  If quotation marks or question marks are used with genus species designations, the quotation marks or question marks should be set in roman type, not italics (e.g., The Unio? is Neotrapezium californicum).

Units of measure:

  •  Standard, i.e. International System of Units (SI), units of measure are abbreviated throughout the text, figures, and tables.
  •  Be consistent when abbreviating units of time and when using numerals or spelled-out numbers for units of time.


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