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Robert Martin

Curator Emeritus

Integrative Research Center
Systematics/Phylogeny

My new book How We Do It: The Evolution and Future of Human Reproduction will be officially released by Basic Books on June 11. In connection with the book, I recently started a regular monthly blog with Psychology Today, which can be accessed with the following url: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/how-we-do-it/

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In the tree of life, human evolution is a very unusual case in many ways. If the focus of study is too narrow, it is difficult to avoid special pleading. My long-term research strategy has hence been rooted in the conviction that a wide-ranging approach is essential to identify reliable general principles. Secure interpretation of our biological origins demands comprehensive study of primate evolution from its earliest beginnings. In this spirit, I have conducted sweeping comparisons across primates, covering anatomy of both living and fossil representatives, ecology, behaviour, reproduction and molecular evolution. Study of size relationships (allometric scaling) has been a pervasive theme. A synthetic approach to primate evolution has several benefits. In addition to generating sound general principles, it can reveal relationships that otherwise escape detection. One illustrative example is provided by the endeavour to determine times of divergence in the primate tree, notably the split between humans and chimpanzees. Because of major gaps in the fossil record, estimation of divergence times from earliest known fossil relatives can be seriously misleading. Statistical analysis of the numbers of living and fossil primates in combination with an evolutionary tree based on DNA evidence reveals that divergence times within the primate tree are generally substantially earlier than has often been claimed. In particular, the divergence between humans and chimpanzees  —  widely held to be around 5 million years ago  —  in fact appears to be closer to 8 million years ago. Another good example is provided by the close connection between brain size and reproductive biology. Only by examining these features in tandem was it possible to infer that maternal energy resources played a vital part in the evolution of the brain. The "Maternal Energy Hypothesis" is particularly relevant to interpreting the evolution of our own very large brain since we diverged from chimpanzees.

 

Biographical Sketch:

Several continuing themes in my research originated with my PhD project (1964-67) on behaviour and evolution of tree-shrews (Tupaiidae). This was based on research with K. Lorenz and I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt (Max-Planck-Institut, Seewiesen), supervised by N. Tinbergen (University of Oxford). Tree-shrews were then widely thought to be the most primitive living primates and my initial aim was to study their behaviour as a model for inferring adaptations of the earliest primates. While breeding tree-shrews, I discovered a very unusual pattern of maternal behaviour: the infants are kept in a separate nest and the mother suckles them only once every 48 hours during a very brief visit. This finding not only stimulated my long-lasting interest in reproductive biology (particularly maternal behaviour) but also revealed a stark contrast with the intensive infant care that typifies primates, suggesting that tree-shrews are not in fact related to them. This led me to re-examine the evidence (largely morphological) for inclusion of tree-shrews in the order Primates. Data on size and structure of the brain had been very influential and so I initiated comparative studies of the brain that in turn revealed the pervasive importance of allometric scaling. In my PhD thesis, I concluded that tree-shrews are not close relatives of primates. This conclusion has since been reinforced by several other investigations and tree-shrews are now generally relegated to the separate mammalian order Scandentia. In fact, however, the process of excluding tree-shrews from the order Primates brought the key adaptations of real primates into sharper focus, revealing a very early origin for many key features of human biology. In a recent twist, molecular evidence has indicated that the little-studied colugos (Dermoptera) are the most likely sister group of primates.

Following my PhD, I decided to study relatively primitive undoubted primates and obtained a NATO postdoctoral grant (1967-69) to work with J.-J. Petter and A. Petter-Rousseaux (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Brunoy). I made detailed studies of reproductive biology on their unique breeding colony of mouse lemurs while continuing my broad-based work on primate morphology. During this postdoctoral period, with support from the Royal Society (London), I also conducted my first behavioural/ecological field study in Madagascar (1968), including original observations on mouse lemurs. Combined field and laboratory observations indicated that mouse lemurs are in fact a suitable model for inferring the ancestral primate condition and that several key adaptations can be traced to a small nocturnal ancestor in the "fine-branch niche" of tropical and subtropical forests.

My postdoctoral research was followed by my first university post as Lecturer in Biological Anthropology at University College London (1969-74). In this new post, I continued to work on reproduction of mouse lemurs in a newly founded colony, while simultaneously expanding comparative work on morphology of the skull, brain, postcranial skeleton and reproductive system in primates. I also conducted a second field study of mouse lemurs in Madagascar (1970). During this period at UCL, my interest in allometric scaling grew and I focussed in particular on the size of the brain and its parts. My work also expanded to include studies of primate fossils, notably early forms such as Adapis, including study of endocasts of the cranial cavity.

At this point in my career, I moved to become Senior Research Fellow at the Wellcome Laboratories, Zoological Society of London (1974-78), where I was responsible for coordinating research on mammalian reproduction. The main projects involved breeding colonies of primates: mouse lemurs, owl monkeys and cottontop tamarins. Owl monkeys are the only nocturnal higher primates and were also of major interest for research on human malaria, so a grant was obtained from the Wellcome Trust to conduct, with A. Dixson, the first detailed study of their reproductive biology. In connection with the projects on primate reproduction, I established a laboratory for hormone radioimmunoassay. This opened up possibilities for conducting hormonal studies on easily-collected urine samples and combining these with studies of behaviour unaffected by sample collection. While applying this to gorillas, I initiated a long-standing research connection with the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, becoming Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Committee in 1975 and a Council member in 1978 (both posts held until 2001). My connection with JWPT (now re-named as the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust) strengthened a growing interest in primate conservation biology and led me to focus on the topic of breeding endangered species in captivity.

In 1975, I also spent a semester at Yale University as Visiting Professor in the Department of Anthropology. This allowed me to visit several research centres and museums in the USA to study fossil specimens and develop my work on comparative morphology. One significant finding confirmed by comparative studies of endocasts of fossil and living primates is that brain size has increased over time in all lineages, so humans are in fact distinguished from other primates by an unusually high rate of brain expansion.

In parallel to other studies, I also organised a quantitative radiotelemetric field study of behaviour and ecology of lesser bushbabies in South Africa supported by the Royal Society (1975-77). The fieldwork was mainly conducted by S. Bearder, although I was able to join him for several months in the field. Apart from yielding detailed data on social organization, our observations confirmed my interpretation of the ancestral primate as a small-bodied nocturnal form occupying the fine-branch niche.

From the Zoological Society, I then moved back to University College London for eight years, first as Reader (1978-82) and then as Professor (1982-86) in Biological Anthropology. My primary research became focussed on allometric scaling, particularly concerning the brain. A key development was the inference of a link between metabolic rate and brain size in mammals. The realization that this link must be indirect led to my hypothesis, linking brain size to reproductive biology, that resources provided by the mother have a major influence on the evolution of brain size. This "maternal energy hypothesis" was first published in Nature in 1981 and consolidated in the 1982 James Arthur Lecture on the Evolution of the Human Brain (American Museum of Natural History, New York). It also led to a 3-year project grant (1982-85) from the Medical Research Council (London) to investigate quantitative aspects of brain development and associated reproductive features of primates. In 1983, I spent a semester as Professeur Associe at the Musee de l'Homme, Paris and used this opportunity to study variation in modern human brain size. My interests in fieldwork on primate ecology also continued on a more modest scale during my second period at UCL. Two study visits were made to Brazil with support from the Royal Society (1980) and the British Council (1982-85). In 1981, I was invited to spend 2 months as Senior Visiting Fellow at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, where I mainly conducted observations on behaviour and ecology of howler monkeys.

In 1986, I moved to take up the post of Director and Professor at the Anthropological Institute in Zurich and built up a range of research activities. The breeding colony of New World monkeys (Callimico, Callithrix, Cebuella) became an important research resource for work on behaviour and reproduction. Major collections of primate specimens are also available for quantitative studies. After moving to Zurich, I completed work on an advanced textbook, Primate Origins and Evolution (1990), as a synthetic overview arising from my research. Two chapters cover the sense organs and the brain, which played a pivotal role in primate evolution. Together with S. Bunney, J.S. Jones and D.R. Pilbeam, I later coedited the award-winning Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution (1993). For the last eight years of my appointment in Zurich, I was a member of the national committee for biology and medicine of the Swiss National Science Foundation.

In September 2001, I took up an appointment at The Field Museum, first as Vice President and then as Provost for Academic Affairs. My responsibilities, with an emphasis on external relationships, were to coordinate research programmes, collections management, contributions to higher education and exhibit-related activities with a team of 40 curators and 60 professional staff in Anthropology, Botany, Geology and Zoology. In parallel to my administrative appointment, I held a post as curator in Anthropology. After stepping down from my administrative role as Provost in 2006, I became the A. Watson Armour III Curator of Biological Anthropology and have since been able to devote my energies predominantly to research, teaching and publication.

Recent Blog Posts

Additional Information

Education

1964: B.A. (Honours) in Zoology. Worcester College, Oxford, England
1967: D.Phil. in Zoology (Animal Behaviour). Worcester College, Oxford, England

 

Grants & awards

1968: Thomas Henry Huxley Award from the Zoological Society of London for Ph.D. thesis completed in 1967

1977: Elected Fellow of the Institute of Biology (London)

1982: Invited to give the 52nd James Arthur Lecture on the Evolution of the Human Brain, American Museum of Natural History, New York

1983: Invited to give the 11th Curl Lecture in Anthropology by the Royal Anthropological Institute (London)

1989: Invited to give a special guest lecture at the symposium "Fertility in the Great Apes" in Atlanta, Georgia

1990: Invited to give the Osman Hill Memorial Lecture in Primatology (with Memorial Medal) by the Primate Society (Great Britain)

1993: Award for Excellence in the category "Best Specialist Reference Work 1992" from  the Literati Club (UK) for The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution (shared with S.Bunney, J.S.Jones and D.R.Pilbeam).

1995: D.Sc. degree awarded by the University of Oxford

1998: Invited to give the Gerald Durrell Lecture by the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust

2001: Elected Professor Emeritus by the University of Zürich, Switzerland

2003: Invited to give the Ernst Mayr Lecture by the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin

2004: Elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Section on Anthropology

Publications

a. PAPERS IN PEER-REVIEWED JOURNALS

         1. Martin,R.D. (1966): Treeshrews: Unique reproductive mechanism of systematic importance. Science  152, 1402-1404.

2. Martin,R.D. (1968): Reproduction and ontogeny in tree-shrews (Tupaia belangeri) with reference to their general behaviour and taxonomic relationships. Z. Tierpsychol.  25, 409-532.

3. Martin,R.D. (1968): Towards a new definition of primates. Man   3, 377-401.

4. Charles-Dominique,P. & Martin,R.D. (1970): Evolution of lorises and lemurs. Nature, Lond.  227, 257-260. [reprinted 1998 in: pp. 69-71 in: Primate Evolution and HumanOrigins.(eds. Ciochon,R.L. & Fleagle,J.G.). Benjamin/Cummings Pub.Co.: Menlo Park, California.]

5. Martin,R.D. (1972): Adaptive radiation and behaviour of the Malagasy lemurs. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (Lond.) B   264, 295-352.

6. D'Souza,F. & Martin,R.D. (1974): Maternal behaviour and the effects of stress in tree shrews.  Nature, Lond.  251, 309-311.

7. Hunter,J., Martin,R.D., Dixson,A.F. & Rudder,B.C.C. (1979): Gestation and inter-birth intervals in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra). Folia Primatol.  31, 165-175.

8. Bearder,S.K. & Martin,R.D. (1980): Acaciagum and its use by bushbabies, Galago senegalensis(Primates: Lorisidae). Int. J. Primatol.  1, 103-128.

9. Martin,R.D. (1981) Relative brain size and metabolic rate in terrestrial vertebrates. Nature, Lond.293, 57-60.

10. Gingerich,P.D. & Martin,R.D. (1981): Cranial morphology and adaptations in Eocene Adapidae. II: The Cambridge skull of Adapis parisiensis.  Amer. J. phys. Anthrop.  56, 235-257.

11. McNeilly,A.S., Hodges,J.K., Smuts,G.S. & Martin,R.D. (1983): Blood concentrations of gonadotrophins, prolactin and gonadal steroids in male and in non-pregnant female African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  J. Reprod. Fertil.  67, 113-120.

12. Brand,H.M. & Martin,R.D. (1983): The relationship between female urinary oestrogen excretion and mating behaviour in cotton-topped tamarins, Saguinus oedipus oedipus.Int. J. Primatol.  4, 275-290.

13. Martin,R.D. & MacLarnon,A.M. (1985): Gestation period, neonatal size and maternal investment in placental mammals. Nature, Lond.313, 220-223.

14. Martin,R.D. & MacLarnon,A.M. (1986): Maternal investment in  mammals: Reply to Zeveloff and Boyce. Nature, Lond.321, 538.

15. Pryce,C.R., Abbott,D.H., Hodges,J.K. & Martin,R.D. (1988): Maternal behaviour is related to prepartum urinary oestradiol levels in red-bellied tamarin monkeys. Physiol. Behav.  44, 717-726.

16. Dutrillaux,B., Lombard,M., Carroll,J.B. & Martin,R.D. (1988): Chromosomal affinities of Callimico goeldii(Platyrrhini) and characterization of a Y-autosome translocation in the male. Folia Primatol.  50, 230-236.

17. Carroll,J.B., Abbott,D.H., George,L.M. & Martin,R.D. (1989): Aspects of urinary oestrogen excretion during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in Goeldi's monkey, Callimico goeldii. Folia Primatol.  52, 201-205.

18. Christen,A., Döbeli,M., Kempken,B., Zachmann,M. & Martin,R.D. (1989): Urinary excretion of oestradiol-17ß in the female cycle of Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii). Folia Primatol.  52, 191-200.

19. Martin,R.D. & Barbour,A.D. (1989): Aspects of line-fitting in bivariate allometric analyses. Folia Primatol.53, 65-81.

20. Thalmann,U., Haubold,H. & Martin,R.D. (1989): Pronycticebus neglectus  -  An almost complete adapid primate specimen from the Geiseltal (GDR).  Palaeovertebrata  19, 115-130.

21. Carroll,J.B., Abbott,D.H., George,L.M., Hindle,J,E. & Martin,R.D. (1990): Urinary endocrine monitoring  of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in Goeldi's monkey. J. Reprod. Fertil.  89, 149-161.

22. Hartwig-Scherer,S. & Martin,R.D. (1991): Was 'Lucy' more human then her 'child'? Observations on early hominid postcranial skeletons. J. hum. Evol.21, 439-449.

23. Hartwig-Scherer,S. & Martin,R.D. (1992): Allometry and prediction in hominoids: A solution to the problem of intervening variables. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop.88, 37-57.

24. Martin,R.D. (1992) Goeldi and the dwarfs: the evolutionary biology of the small New World monkeys. J. hum. Evol.22, 367-393.

25. Pryce,C.R., Döbeli,M. & Martin,R.D. (1993): Effects of sex steroids on maternal motivation in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): Development and application of an operant system with maternal reinforcement. J. comp. Psychol.107, 99-115.

26. Martin,R.D. (1993): Primate origins: plugging the gaps. Nature, Lond. 363, 223-234.

27. Jurke,M.H., Pryce,C.R., Döbeli,M. & Martin,R.D. (1994): Non-invasive detection and monitoring of pregnancy and the postpartum period in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) using urinary pregnanediol-3a-glucuronide. Amer. J. Primatol.34, 319-331.

28. von Segesser,F., Scheffrahn,W. & Martin,R.D. (1995): Parentage analysis within a semi-free-ranging group of Barbary macaques Macaca sylvanus. Mol. Ecol.  4, 115-120.

29. Zollikofer,C.P.E., Ponce de León,M.S., Martin,R.D. & Stucki,P. (1995): Neanderthal computer skulls. Nature, Lond.375, 283-285.

30. Martin,R.D. (1996): Scaling of the mammalian brain: the maternal energy hypothesis. News Physiol. Sci.11, 149-156.

31. Genoud,M, Martin,R.D. & Glaser,D. (1997): Rate of metabolism in the smallest simian primate, the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea). Amer. J. Primatol.41, 229-245.

32. Zollikofer,C.P.E., Ponce de León,M.S. & Martin,R.D. (1998): Computer-assisted paleoanthropology. Evol. Anthrop. 6, 41-54.

33. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J., Martin,R.D. & Melnick,D.J. (1998): A re-examination of the phylogenetic position of Callimico(Primates) incorporating new mitochondrial DNA sequence data. J. mol. Evol.47, 32-41.

34. Dettling,A., Pryce,C.R., Martin,R.D. & Döbeli,M. (1998): Physiological responses to parental separation and a strange situation are related to parental care received in juvenile Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii). Dev. Psychobiol.33, 21-31.

35. Grob,B., Knapp,L.A., Martin,R.D. & Anzenberger,G. (1998): The major histocompatibility complex and mate choice: Inbreeding avoidance and selection of good genes. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet.15, 119-129.

36. Bahr,N.I., Pryce,C.R., Döbeli,M. & Martin,R.D. (1998): Evidence from urinary cortisol that maternal behavior is related to stress in gorillas. Physiol. Behav.64, 429-437.

37. Curtis,D.J., Zaramody,A. & Martin,R.D. (1999): Cathemerality in the monogoose lemur, Eulemur mongoz.Amer. J. Primatol.47, 279-298.

38. Nievergelt,C. & Martin,R.D. (1999): Energy intake during reproduction in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Physiol. Behav.65, 849-854.

39. von Segesser,F., Ménard,N., Gaci,B. & Martin,R.D. (1999): Genetic differentiation within and between isolated Algerian subpopulations of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus): evidence from microsatellites. Mol. Ecol.8, 433-442.

40. Windle,C., Baker,H.F., Ridley,R.M., Oerke,A.-K. & Martin,R.D. (1999): Unrearable litters and prenatal reduction of litter size in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). J. med. Primatol.28, 73-83.

41. Hemelrijk,C.K., Meier,C. & Martin,R.D. (1999): Friendship for fitness in chimpanzees? Anim. Behav. 58, 1223-1229.

42. Meier,C., Hemelrijk,C.K. & Martin,R.D. (2000): Paternity determination, genetic characterization and social correlates in a captive group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates41,175-183.

43. Pastorini,J., Epplen,J.T. & Martin,R.D. (2000): Multilocus DNA fingerprinting using oligonucleotide probes in 5 macaque species. Folia Primatol.71, 161-168.

44. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J. & Martin,R.D. (2000): Relationships among brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.16, 418-429.

45. Martin,R.D. (2000) Origins, diversity and relationships of lemurs. Int. J. Primatol.21, 1021-1049.

46. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J. & Martin,R.D. (2001): Phylogenetic history of sifakas (Propithecus: Lemuriformes) derived from mtDNA sequences. Amer. J. Primatol.53, 1-17.

47. Pastorini,J., Martin,R.D., Ehresmann,P., Zimmermann,E. & Forstner,M.R.J. (2001): Molecular phylogeny of the lemur family Cheirogaleidae (Primates) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.19, 45-56.

48. Hemelrijk,C.K., Meier,C. & Martin,R.D. (2001): Social positive behaviour for reproductive benefits in primates? A response to comments by Stopka et al.(2001). Anim. Behav.61, F22-F24.

49. Ménard,N., von Segesser,F., Scheffrahn,W., Pastorini,J., Vallet,D., Gaci,B., Martin,R.D. & Gautier-Hion,A. (2001): Is male-infant caretaking related to paternity and/or mating activities in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)? C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sci. Vie324, 601-610.

50. Bahr,N.I., Martin,R.D. & Pryce,C.R. (2001): Peripartum sex steroid profiles and endocrine correlates of postpartum maternal behavior in captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Horm. Behav.40, 533-541.

51. Tavaré,S., Marshall,C.R., Will,O., Soligo,C., & Martin,R.D. (2002). Using the fossil record to estimate the age of the last common ancestor of extant primates. Nature, Lond.416, 726-729.

52. Isler,K., Barbour,A.D. & Martin,R.D. (2002): Line-fitting by rotation: A nonparametric method for bivariate allometric analysis. Biometr. J.44, 289-304.

53. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J. & Martin,R.D. (2002): Phylogenetic relationships among Lemuridae (Primates): Evidence from mtDNA. J. Hum. Evol.43, 463-478.

54. Pastorini,J., Thalmann,U. & Martin,R.D. (2003): A molecular approach to comparative phylogeography of extant Malagasy lemurs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.. 100, 5879-5884.

55.  Kälin,N., Martin,R.D. & Genoud,M. (2003): Basal rate of metabolism and temperature regulation in Goeldi’s monkey (Callimico goeldii). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A135, 279-290.

56. Martin,R.D. (2003): Human reproduction: A comparative background for medical hypotheses. J. Reprod. Immunol. 59, 111-135.

57. Olson,L.E., Sargis,E.J. & Martin,R.D. (2004): Phylogenetic relationships among tree shrews (Scandentia): A review and critique of the morphological evidence. J. mamm. Evol.11, 49-71.

58. Martin,R.D., Genoud,M. & Hemelrijk,C.K. (2005): Problems of allometric scaling analysis: Examples from mammalian reproductive biology. J. exp. Biol.208, 1731-1747.

59. Modolo,L., Salzburger,W. & Martin,R.D. (2005): Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA102, 7392–7397.

60. Olson,L.E., Sargis,E.J. & Martin,R.D. (2005): Intraordinal phylogenetics of treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia) based on evidence from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.35, 656-673.

61. Kümmerli,R. & Martin,R.D. (2005): Male and female reproductive success in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar: No evidence for rank dependence. Int. J. Primatol.26, 1229-1249.

62. Miller,E.R., Gunnell,G.F & Martin,R.D. (2005): Deep time and the search for anthropoid origins. Yb. phys. Anthrop.48,  60-95.

63. Soligo,C. and Martin,R.D. (2006): Adaptive origins of primates revisited. J. Hum. Evol.50,  414-430.

64. Martin,R.D., MacLarnon,A.M., Phillips,J.L., Dussubieux,L., Williams,P.R. & Dobyns,W.B. (2006). Comment on 'The brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis' (Technical Comment). Science312, 999b.

65. Martin,R.D., MacLarnon,A.M., Phillips,J.L. & Dobyns,W.B. (2006): Flores hominid: New species or microcephalic dwarf? Anat. Rec.288A, 1123-1145.

66. Martin,R.D. (2007): The evolution of human reproduction: A primatological perspective. Ybk. phys. Anthrop.50, 59-84.

67. Martin,R.D., Soligo,C. & Tavaré,S. (2007): Primate origins: Implications of a Cretaceous ancestry. Folia Primatol.78, 277–296.

68. Perry,G.H., Martin,R.D. & Verrelli,B.C. (2007): Signature of functional constraint in aye-aye opsin genes: the potential of adaptive color vision in a nocturnal primate. Mol. Biol. Evol.24, 1963-1970.

69. Soligo,C. & Martin R.D. (2007): The first primates: a reply to Silcox et al.J. hum. Evol.53, 325-328.

70. Isler,K., Kirk,E.C., Miller,J.M.A., Albrecht,G.A., Gelvin,B.R. & Martin,R.D. (2008): Endocranial volumes of primate species: Scaling analyses using a comprehensive and reliable dataset. J. hum. Evol., 55, 967-978

71. Kümmerli,R. & Martin, R.D. (2008): Patterns of infant handling and relatedness in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) on Gibraltar. Primates49, 271-282.

72. Martin,R.D. (2008): Evolution of placentation in primates: Implications of mammalian phylogeny. Evol. Biol.35, 125–145.

73. Modolo,L & Martin R.D. (2008): Reproductive success in relation to dominance rank in the absence of prime-age males in Barbary macaques. Amer.  J. Primatol.70, 26-34.

74. Modolo,L., Martin,R.D., van Schaik,C.P., van Noordwijk,M.A. & Krutzen,M. (2008): When dispersal fails: Genetic separation despite close proximity in Gibraltar macaques. Mol. Ecol.18, 4027-4038.

75. Wilkinson,R.D., Steiper,M.E., Soligo,C., Martin,R.D., Yang,Z. & Tavaré,S. (2011): Dating primate divergences through an integrated analysis of palaeontological and molecular data. Syst. Biol.60, 16-31.

76. Martin,R.D. (2012): Reproductive characteristics of New World monkeys. Int. Zoo Yrbk.46, 95-108.

77. Yao,L., Brown,J.P., Stampanoni,M., Marone,F., Isler,K. & Martin,R.D. (2012) Evolutionary change in brain size of bats. Brain, Behav. Evol.80, 15-25.

 

b. PAPERS WITHOUT PEER REVIEW

78. Martin,R.D. (1969): The evolution of reproductive mechanisms in primates. J. Reprod. Fertil., Suppl.  6, 49-66. (Paper given to the International Symposium on the Biology of Reproduction in Mammals,  Nairobi,  Kenya 1968)

79. Martin,R.D. (1972): A preliminary field-study of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, J.F.Miller 1777).  Z. Tierpsychol., Beiheft  9, 43-89.

80. Martin,R.D. (1973): Comparative anatomy and primate systematics. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond.33, 301-337.

81. Martin,R.D. (1975): Breeding tree-shrews, Tupaia belangeri, and mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus, in captivity. Int. Zoo Yb.  15, 35-41.

82. Martin,R.D., Seaton,B. & Lusty,J. (1975): Application of urinary hormone determinations in the management of gorillas. Ann. Rep. Jersey Wildl. Pres. Trust  12, 61-70.

83. Martin,R.D., Rivers,J.P.W. & Cowgill,U.M. (1976): Culturing mealworms as food for animals in captivity. Int. Zoo Yb16, 63-70.

84. Martin,R.D. (1976): A zoologist's view of research on reproduction. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 40, 283-319.

85. Clift,J.P. & Martin,R.D. (1978): Monitoring of pregnancy and post-natal behaviour in a female lowland gorilla, Gorilla g. gorilla, at London Zoo. Int. Zoo Yb.  18, 358-370.

86. Martin,R.D., Kingsley,S.R. & Stavy,M. (1978): Prospects for coordinated research into breeding of great apes in zoological collections. Dodo (J. Jersey Wildl. Pres. Trust)  14, 45-55.

87. Kingsley,S.R. & Martin,R.D. (1979): A case of placenta praevia in an orang-utan. Vet. Rec. 104, 56-57.

88. Stavy,M., Gilbert,D. & Martin,R.D. (1979): Routine determination of sex in monomorphic bird species using faecal steroid analysis. Int. Zoo Yb. 19, 209-214.

89. Martin,R.D. (1980): Adaptation and body size in primates. Z. Morph. Anthrop. 71, 115-124.

90. Martin,R.D. (1981): Field studies of primate behaviour. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond.46, 287-336.

91. Martin,R.D. (1981): Phylogenetic reconstruction versusclassification: The case for clear demarcation. Biologist  28, 127-132.

92. Rollinson,J.M.M. & Martin,R.D. (1981): Comparative aspects of primate locomotion, with special reference to arboreal cercopithecines. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond.  48, 377-427.

93. Cross,J.F. & Martin,R.D. (1981): Calculation of gestation period and other reproductive parameters for primates. Dodo (J. Jersey Wildl. Pres. Trust)  18, 30-43.

94. Martin,R.D. (1983): Commentary on Blumenberg: The evolution of the advanced hominid brain. Curr. Anthrop.  24, 606-607.

95. Martin,R.D. (1984): Scaling effects and adaptive strategies in mammalian lactation. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond.  51, 87-117.

96. Willner,L.A. & Martin,R.D. (1985): Some basic principles of mammalian sexual dimorphism. Symp. Soc. Stud. Hum. Biol.  24, 1-42.

97. Martin,R.D. & MacLarnon,A.M. (1988): Comparative quantitative studies of growth and reproduction. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond.  60, 39-80.

98. Martin,R.D. (1989): Evolution of the brain in early hominids. Ossa  14, 49-62.

99. Martin,R.D. (1996): Commentary on R.J.Smith: Biology and body size in human evolution. Curr. Anthrop.  37, 470-472.

100. Martin,R.D. & von Segesser,F. (1996): Fragmentation of natural populations, genetics and conservation biology. Almoraima 15, 311-326.

101. Martin,R.D. (2002): Primatology as an essential basis for biological anthropology. Evol. Anthrop.11, Suppl. 1,3-6.

102. Oerke,A.-K., Heistermann,M., Küderling,I., Martin,R.D. & Hodges,J.K. (2002): Monitoring reproduction by means of ultrasonography. Evol. Anthrop.11, Suppl. 1, 183-185.

103. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J., and Martin,R.D. (2002): Phylogenetic relationships of gentle lemurs (Hapalemur). Evol. Anthrop.11, Suppl. 1, 150-154.

104. Soligo,C., Anzenberger,G. & Martin,R.D. (2002): Into the third millennium: One hundred years of anthropology in Zürich. Evol. Anthrop.11, Suppl. 1, 1-2.

105. von Koenigswald,W., Rose,K.D., Grande,L. & Martin,R.D. (2005): First apatemyid skeleton from the lower Eocene Fossil Butte Member Wyoming, compared to the European apatemyid from Messel, Germany. Palaeontographica Abt. A272, 149-169.

106. von Koenigswald,W., Rose,K.D., Grande,L. & Martin,R.D. (2005): Die Lebensweise eozäner Säugetiere (Pantolestidae und Apatemyidae) aus Messel (Europa) im Vergleich zu neuen Skelettfunden aus dem Fossil Butte Member von Wyoming (Nordamerika). Geol. Jb. Hessen132, 43-54.

107. Martin,R.D. (2006): New light on primate evolution. Ber. Abhandl. Berlin-Brandenburg. Akad. Wiss.11, 379-405. (Text of Ernst Mayr Lecture given to the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin.)

108. Martin,R.D. (2008): Colugos: Obscure mammals glide into the evolutionary limelight. J. Biol.7, Art 13, 1-5.

109. Martin R.D. (2008): Les hominidés remontent dans le temps. Doss. Recherche32, 18-26.

110. Martin,R.D. (2009): Commentary on K.B.Strier: Seeing the forest through the seeds. Curr. Anthropol.  50, 222-224.

111. Soligo,C. & Martin,R.D. (2009): Darwinius: Sequel to a Messel divorce. Folia Primatol.80, 247-248.

 

c.BOOK CHAPTERS

112. Martin,R.D. (1972): Concepts of human territoriality. pp. 427-445 in: Man, Settlement and Urbanism.(eds. Ucko,P.J., Tringham,R. & Dimbleby,G.W.). Duckworth: London.

113. Martin,R.D. (1972): A laboratory breeding colony of the lesser mouse lemur. pp. 161-17l in: Breeding Primates.(ed. Beveridge,W.I.B.). Karger Verlag: Basel.

114. Martin,R.D. (1973): A review of the behaviour and ecology of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, J.F.Miller 1777). pp. 1-68 in: Comparative Ecology and Behaviour of Primates.(eds. Michael,R.P. & Crook,J.H.). Academic Press: London.

115. Martin,R.D. (1974): The biological basis of human behaviour. pp. 215-250 in: The Biology of Brains. (ed. Broughton,W.B.). Blackwells Scientific Publications: Oxford.

116. Martin,R.D. (1975): General principles for breeding small mammals in captivity. pp.143-166 inBreeding Endangered Species in Captivity.  (ed. Martin,R.D.). Academic Press: London.

117. Martin,R.D. (1975): The bearing of reproductive behaviour on strepsirhine phylogeny. pp. 265-297 in: Phylogeny of the Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. (eds. Luckett,W.P. & Szalay,F.S.) Plenum Press: New York.

118. Martin,R.D. (1978): Major features of prosimian evolution: A discussion in the light of chromosomal evidence. pp. 3-26 in: Recent Advances in Primatology. Vol. 3: Evolution. (eds. Chivers,D.J. & Joysey,K.A.). Academic Press: London.

119. Martin,R.D. (1979): Phylogenetic aspects of prosimian behavior. pp. 45-77 in: The Study of Prosimian Behavior.  (eds. Doyle,G.A. & Martin,R.D.). Academic Press: New York.

120. Bearder,S.K. & Martin,R.D. (1979): The social organization of a nocturnal primate revealed by radio-tracking. pp. 633-648 in: A Handbook on Biotelemetry and Radio Tracking.(eds. Amlaner,C.J. & Macdonald,D.W.). Pergamon Press: Oxford.

121. Dixson,A.F., Bonney,R.C., Fleming,D. & Martin,R.D. (1980): Reproductive biology of the owl monkey Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra.pp.61-68 in: Non-Human Primate Models in Human Reproduction. (ed. Anand Kumar,T.C.). Karger Verlag: Basel.

122. Martin,R.D. (1982): Allometric approaches to the evolution of the primate nervous system. pp. 39-56 in: Primate Brain Evolution: Methods and Concepts.(eds. Armstrong,E. & Falk,D.). Plenum Press: New York.

123. Martin,R.D. (1984): Body size, brain size and feeding strategies in primates. pp. 73-103 in: Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates. (ed. Chivers, D.J.). Plenum Press: London.

124. Martin,R.D., Chivers,D.J., MacLarnon,A.M. & Hladik,C.M. (1985): Gastrointestinal allometry in primates and other mammals. pp. 61-89 in: Size and Scaling in Primate Biology.(ed. Jungers,W.L.). Plenum Press: New York.

125. Martin,R.D. & Harvey,P.H. (1985): Brain size allometry: Ontogeny and phylogeny. pp. 147-173 in: Size and Scaling in Primate Biology. (ed. Jungers,W.L.). Plenum Press: New York.

126. Martin,R.D. (1985): Primates: a definition. pp. 1-31 in: Major Topics in Primate and Human Evolution.(eds. Wood,B.A., Martin,L.B. & Andrews,P.J.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

127. Martin,R.D. (1986): Ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of human brain size. pp. 325-341 in: Définition et Origines de l'Homme. (ed. Sakka,M.). Editions du CNRS: Paris. [Table ronde internat. CNRS3.]

128. MacLarnon,A.M., Martin,R.D., Chivers,D.J. & Hladik,C.M. (1986): Some aspects of gastro-intestinal allometry in primates and other mammals. pp. 293-302 in: Définition et Origines de l'Homme.(ed. Sakka, M.). Editions du CNRS: Paris. [Table ronde internat. CNRS3.]

129. MacLarnon,A.M., Chivers,D.J. & Martin,R.D. (1986): Gastro-intestinal allometry in primates and other mammals including new species. pp.75-85 in: Primate Ecology and Conservation. (eds. Else,J.G. & Lee,P.C.). 75-85. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

130. Harvey,P.H., Martin,R.D. & Clutton-Brock,T.H. (1987): Life histories in comparative perspective. pp. 181-196 in: Primate Societies. (eds. Smuts,B.B., Cheney,D., Seyfarth,R.M., Wrangham,R. & Struhsaker,T.). University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

131. Martin,R.D. (1987): Strategies of reproduction. pp 120-128 in: The Natural History Reader in Animal Behavior. (ed. Topoff,H.). Columbia University Press: New York.

132. Martin,R.D. & MacLarnon,A.M. (1988): Quantitative comparisons of the skull and teeth in guenons. pp. 160-183 in: A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons. (eds. Gautier-Hion,A., Bourlière,F., Gautier,J.-P. & Kingdon,J.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

133. Martin,R.D. (1989): Size, shape and evolution. pp. 96-141 in: Evolutionary Studies - A Centenary Celebration of the Life of Julian Huxley. (ed. Keynes,M.). Eugenics Society: London.

134. Martin,R.D. & MacLarnon,A.M. (1990): Reproductive patterns in primates and other mammals: The dichotomy between altricial and precocial offspring. pp. 47-79 in: Primate Life History and Evolution. (ed. DeRousseau,C.J.). Wiley-Liss: New York.

135. Stringer,C.B., Dean,M.C. & Martin,R.D. (1990): A comparative study of cranial and dental development with a recent British sample and among Neandertals. pp. 115-152 in: Primate Life History and Evolution. (ed. DeRousseau,C.J.). Wiley-Liss: New York.

136. de Ruiter,J., Scheffrahn,W., Trommelen,G.J.J.M., Uitterlinden,A.G., Martin,R.D. & van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. (1992): Male social rank and reproductive success in wild long-tailed macaques. pp. 175-191 in: Paternity in Primates: Genetic Tests and Theories. Implications of Human DNA Fingerprinting. (eds. Martin,R.D., Dixson,A.F. & Wickings,E.J.). Karger Verlag: Basel.

137. Martin,R.D. (1992): Female cycles in relation to paternity in primate societies. pp. 238-274 in: Paternity in Primates: Genetic Tests and Theories. Implications of Human DNA Fingerprinting. (eds. Martin,R.D., Dixson,A.F. & Wickings,E.J.). Karger Verlag: Basel.

138. Martin,R.D. (1992): Classification and evolutionary relationships. pp. 17-23 in: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.(ed. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

139. Martin,R.D. (1992): Breeding primates in captivity. p. 37 in: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.(ed. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

140. Martin,R.D. (1992): Scaling. p. 42 in: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.(ed. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

141. Martin,R.D. (1992): Primate gum eaters. p. 63 in: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.(ed. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

142. Martin,R.D. (1992): Walking on two legs. p. 78 in: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.(ed. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

143. Martin,R.D. (1992): Primate reproduction. pp. 86-90 in: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.(ed. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

144. Martin,R.D. (1992): Rates of breeding. p. 96 in: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.(ed. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

145. Martin,R.D. (1993): Allometric aspects of skull morphology in Theropithecus. pp. 273-298 in: Theropithecus:  The Rise and Fall of a Primate Genus.(ed. Jablonski,N.G.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

146. Vàsàrhelyi,K. & Martin,R.D. (1994): Evolutionary biology, genetics and the management of endangered primate species. pp. 118-143 in: Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals. (eds. Olney,P., Mace,G.M. & Feistner,A.T.C.). Chapman & Hall: London.

147. Martin,R.D., Willner,L.A. & Dettling,A. (1994): The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in primates. pp. 159-200  in: The Differences Between the Sexes. (eds. Short,R.V. & Balaban,E.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

148. Martin,R.D. (1995): Phylogenetic aspects of primate reproduction: the context of advanced maternal care. pp. 16-26 in: Motherhood in Human and Nonhuman Primates. Biological and Social Determinants.(eds. Pryce,C.R., Martin,R.D. & Skuse,D.H.). Karger Verlag: Basel.

149. Pryce,C.R., Mutschler,T., Döbeli,M., Nievergelt,C. & Martin,R.D. (1995): Prepartum sex steroid hormones and infant-directed behaviour in primiparous marmoset mothers (Callithrix jacchus). pp. 78-86 in: Motherhood in Human and Nonhuman Primates. Biological and Social Determinants.(eds. Pryce,C.R., Martin,R.D. & Skuse,D.H.). Karger Verlag: Basel.

150. Martin,R.D. (1995): Prosimians: from obscurity to extinction? pp. 535-563 in: Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians.(eds. Alterman,L., Doyle,G.A. & Izard,M.K.). Plenum Press: New York.

151. Martin,R.D. (1998): Comparative aspects of human brain evolution: Scaling, energy costs and confounding variables. pp. 35-68 in: The Origin and Diversification of Language. (eds. Jablonski,N.G. & Aiello,L.C.). California Academy of Sciences: San Francisco.

152. Martin,R.D. (2000): Recursos energéticos y la evolución del tamaño cerebral en los hominoideos. pp. 217-263 in: Antes de Lucy: El agujero negro de la evolución humana. (ed. Agusti,J.). Tusquets Editores: Barcelona.

153. Martin,R.D. (2000): Primate origins: plugging the gaps. pp. 325-353 in Shaking the Tree. (ed. Gee,H.). University of Chicago Press: Chicago. (Reprinted version of 1993 paper in Nature)

154. Ponce de León,M.S., Zollikofer,C.P.E., Stringer,C.B. & Martin,R.D. (2000): Investigation of Neanderthal morphology with computer-assisted methods. pp. 237-248 in: Neanderthals on the Edge: 150th Anniversary Conference of the Forbes' Quarry Discovery, Gibraltar. (eds. Stringer,C.B., Barton,N. & Finlayson,C.). Oxbow Books: Oxford.

155. Martin,R.D. (2002): Die Evolution des Menschen im Rahmen der Stammesgeschichte der Säugetiere. pp. 87-103 in: Vom Ursprung des Universums zur Evolution des Geistes. (eds. Walde,P. & Luisi,P.L.). vdf Hochschulverlag: Zürich.

156. Martin,R.D. & Ross,C.F. (2005) The evolutionary and ecological context of primate vision. pp. 1-36 in: The Primate Visual System: A Comparative Approach(ed. Kremers,J.). John Wiley: New York.

157. Ross,C.F. & Martin,R.D. (2006): The role of vision in the origin and evolution of primates. pp. 59-78in: Evolution of Nervous Systems. Volume IV: Primates. (ed. Kaas,J.H.). Academic Press: Oxford.

158. Soligo,C., Will,O., Tavaré,S. Marshall,C.R., & Martin,R.D. (2007): New light on the dates of primate origins and divergence. pp. 29-49 in: Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution. (eds. Ravosa,M.J. & Dagosto,M.). Springer: New York.

159. Martin,R.D. (2007) Problems with the tiny brain of the Flores hominid. pp. 9-23 in: Recent Advances of Southeast Asian Paleoanthropology and Archaeology.(ed. Indriati,E.). Laboratory of Bioanthropology and Paleoanthropology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University: Yogyakarta.

160. Martin,R.D. (2009) Lemurs and tarsiers. pp. 549-553 in: Encyclopedia of Islands(eds. Gillespie,R. & Clague,D.A.). University of California Press: Berkeley, CA.

161. Ross,C.F. & Martin,R,D. (2009): The role of vision in the origin and evolution of primates. pp. 827-846 in: Evolutionary Neuroscience. (ed. Kaas,J.H). Academic Press: London.

162. Martin,R.D. (2010) Die Evolution des menschlichen Körpers. pp. 74-109 in Evolution und Kultur des Menschen(eds. Fischer,E.P. & Wiegandt,K.) Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag: Frankfurt am Main.

163. Carter,A.M. & Martin, RD. (2010): Comparative anatomy and placental evolution. pp. 109-126 in: Placental Bed Disorders: Basic Science and its Translation to Obstetrics(eds. Pijnenborg,R., Brosens, I. & Romero,R.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

164. Martin,R.D. & Isler,K. (2010) The maternal energy hypothesis of brain evolution: An update. pp. 15-35 in: The Human Brain Evolving: Paleoneurological Studies in Honor of Ralph L. Holloway(eds. Broadfield,D., Yuan,M., Schick,K. & Toth,N.) Stone Age Institute Press: Bloomington, Indiana.

165. Martin,R.D. (2011) Human origins: From Darwin to the present day pp. 67-97 in Faktum Evolution — Gesellschaftliche Bedeutung und Wahrnehmung(ed. Knoflacher,M.), Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main.

166. Martin, R.D. (2013) Conclusion: The ontogeny of investigating primate ontogeny. pp. 507-515 in Building Babies: Primate Development in Proximate and Ultimate Perspectives(eds. Clancy,K.B.H., Hinde,K. & Rutherford,J.N.). New York: Springer.

 

d. MONOGRAPHS AND BOOKS

167. Martin,R.D. (1967): Behaviour and Taxonomy of Tree-Shrews (Tupaiidae).  D.Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.

168. Martin,R.D., Doyle,G.A. & Walker,A.C. (eds.) (1974): Prosimian Biology.  pp. 983. Duckworth: London.

169. Martin,R.D. (ed.) (1975): Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity.  pp. 420. Academic Press: London.

170. Doyle,G.A. & Martin,R.D. (eds.) (1979): The Study of Prosimian Behavior.  pp. 696. Academic Press: New York.

171.  Martin,R.D. (1983): Human Brain Evolution in an Ecological Context.  (52nd James Arthur Lecture on the Evolution of the Human Brain). pp. 58. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

172. Ghesquière,J., Martin,R.D. & Newcombe,F. (eds). (1985): Human Sexual Dimorphism.  (Symp. Soc. Stud. Hum. Biol.  24)Taylor & Francis: London.

173. Martin,R.D. (1990): Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction. pp. 804. Chapman Hall: London; Princeton University Press: New Jersey.

174. Martin,R.D., Dixson,A.F. & Wickings,E.J. (eds.) (1992): Paternity in Primates: Genetic Tests and Theories. Implications of Human DNA Fingerprinting. pp. 287. Karger: Basel.

175. Jones,J.S., Martin,R.D., Pilbeam,D.R. & Bunney,S. (eds.) (1992): The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.pp. 506. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

176. Pryce,C.R., Martin,R.D. & Skuse,D.H (eds.) (1995): Motherhood in Human and Nonhuman Primates. Biological and Social Determinants.pp. 176. Karger Verlag: Basel.

177. Greif,R., Schmid,P. & Martin,R.D. (1997) Museum der Anthropologie, Universität Zürich-Irchel: Leitfaden durch die permanente Ausstellung. Zürich: Museum der Anthropologie, Universität Zürich.

178. Soligo,C., Anzenberger,G. & Martin,R.D. (eds.). (2002): Anthropology and Primatology into the Third Millennium: The Centenary Congress of the Zürich Anthropological Institute. John Wiley, New York.

179. Martin,R.D. (2013): How We Do It: The Evolution and Future of Human Reproduction.pp. 312. Basic Books: New York.

 

e. CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS

180. Pryce,C.R., Döbeli,M. & Martin,R.D. (1991): Steroid metabolites and assessment of phylogenetic and reproductive status in endangered New World primates. J. Reprod. Fertil.,Abstr. Ser.7, 22.

181. Pryce,C.R., Abbott,D.H., Hodges,J.K. & Martin,R.D. (1991): Social and endocrine correlates of maternal behaviour and failure in a New World primate. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.31, 289-290.

182. Pryce,C.R., Jurke,M.H., Martin,R.D., Mutschler,T. & Dettling,A. (1994): Goeldi's monkey - reproduction and conservation: fundamental research and the need for its application. p.68 in: Abstracts of the EEP Workshop on Research and Captive Propagation. (eds. Melster,J. & Ganslosser,U.). Erlangen: European Endangered Species Programme.

183. Simmen,B., Hladik,C.M. & Martin,R.D. (1995): Sweet and bitter taste discrimination and energy requirements in non-human primates. Chem. Senses 20, 153.

184. Martin,R.D. (1995): Genetics of endangered primate species. Bull. Schweiz. Ges. Anthrop.1, 71-73.

185.  Knapp,L.A. & Martin,R.D. (1996): Identification of genetic polymorphisms and applications to studies of nonhuman primates. In Abstracts, XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society. (ed. Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center). Abstract 600. Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.

186. von Segesser,F. & Martin,R.D. (1996): Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). In Abstracts, XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society. (ed. Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center). Abstract 607. Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.

187. Nievergelt,C. & Martin,R.D. (1997): Time/energy budgets of both sexes during reproduction of captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Amer. J. Primatol.42, 136-137.

188.  von Segesser,F. & Martin,R.D. (1997) Genetic studies on populations from Morocco and Gibraltar. In The Barbary Macaque: A Synthesis. International Symposium(ed. Institut für Verhaltensbiologie, Freie Universität Berlin), p. xx. Institut für Verhaltensbiologie, Freie Universität Berlin: Berlin.

189. Martin,R.D. (1998): Primate brain evolution: the maternal contribution. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop.26, 155-156.

190. Martin,R.D. (1998): The contribution of maternal energetics to mammalian brain evolution. p.385 in New Neuroethology on the Move: Proceedings of the 26th Göttingen Neurobiology Conference 1998, volume 1. (eds. Elsner,N. & Wehner,R.). (Abstract 149). Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag.

191. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J., Martin,R.D. & Melnick,D.J. (1998): Morphology and molecules in conflict: The phylogenetic relationship of Callimicowithin the Callitrichidae. Folia Primatol.69, 237.

192. Oerke,A.-K., Martin,R.D. & Hodges,J.K. (1998): Non-invasive monitoring of pregnancy and prenatal development in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) by ultrasonography. Adv. Ethol.33, 68.

193. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J., Martin,R.D. & Melnick,D.J. (1998): Morphology and molecules in conflict: The phylogenetic relationship of Callimicowithin the Callitrichidae. Rev. Suisse Zool.105, 756.

194. Martin,R.D. (1998) Primate brain evolution: the maternal contribution. Am. J. phys. Anthropol.26, 155-156.

195. Martin,R.D. (1998): Basic research, conservation biology and nocturnal primates. In XVII Congress of the International Primatological Society, University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo (Madagascar), Abstract #239.

196. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J. & Martin,R.D. (1998) Phylogenetic study of the family Lemuridae based on DNA sequences. In XVII Congress of the International Primatological Society, University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo (Madagascar), Abstract #233.

197. Marshall,C.R., Tavaré,S., Will,O., Martin,R.D. & Soligo,C. (1998): Taking into account the temporal ranges of unobserved species: reconciliation of fossil and molecular clock estimates of primate origins? Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstr. Prog. 199830, A-326.

198. Martin,R.D. (1999): Primatology as a basis for anthropology. In Programme and Abstracts: Centenary Congress of the Anthropological Institute and Museum in Zürich 1899-1999. (ed. Martin,R.D.). p. 33. Zürich: University of Zürich.

199. Oerke,A.-K., Heistermann,M., Küderling,I., Martin,R.D. & Hodges,J.K. (1999): Monitoring reproduction by means of ultrasonography. In Programme and Abstracts: Centenary Congress of the Anthropological Institute and Museum in Zürich 1899-1999. (ed. Martin,R.D.). p. 39. Zürich: University of Zürich.

200. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J., Zaramody,A., Scheffrahn,W., Clark,M.S., Waters,M., Curtis,D.J. & Martin,R.D. (1999) Population genetic study of mongoose lemurs based on DNA sequences. p. 259 in: Poster Abstracts: 7th World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species — Linking Zoo and Field Research to Advance Conservation(ed. Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden), Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden: Cincinnati.

201. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J. & Martin,R.D. (1999) Phylogenetic relationships among Lemuridae (Primates) inferred from DNA sequences. Rev. Suisse Zool.106, 775-776.

202. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M. & Martin,R.D. (1999): Molecular phylogenetics of Lemuridae. In Programme and Abstracts: Centenary Congress of the Anthropological Institute and Museum in Zürich 1899-1999. (ed. Martin,R.D.). p. 40. Zürich: University of Zürich.

203. Martin,R.D., Soligo,C., Tavaré,S., Will,O. & Marshall,C.R. (2000): New light on the dates of primate origins and divergence. Folia Primatol.71, 358-359.

204. Oerke,A.-K., Heistermann,M., Martin,R.D., Leus,K. & Hodges,J.K. (2000): Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur pränatalen Entwicklung bei Krallenaffen. Ultraschall Med.21, S70.

205. Oerke,A.-K., Martin,R.D. & Hodges,J.K. (2000): Ultrasonography in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii): Reproductive data with evolutionary significance. Folia Primatol.71, 204.

206. Pastorini,J., Forstner,M.R.J. & Martin,R.D. (2000): Molecular phylogeny of brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus). Folia Primatol.71, 235-236.

207. Oerke,A.-K., Heistermann,M., Küderling,I., Leus,K., Martin,R.D. & Hodges,J.K. (2000): Ultrasonography in primates: Comparative aspects of prenatal development in Callitrichidae. Homo51, Suppl., S95.

208. Martin,R.D., Pastorini,J. & Oerke,A.-K. (2000): Reproductive biology and phylogenetic relationships of Goeldi's monkey. Homo51, Suppl., S83.

209. Pastorini,J., Ehresmann,P., Zimmermann,E., Martin,R.D. & Forstner,M.R.J. (2000): Phylogenetic relationships within the lemur family Cheirogaleidae from mtDNA sequence analyses. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop., Suppl.30, 246.

210. Marshall,C.R., Tavaré,S., Will,O., Soligo,C. & Martin,R.D. (2001): Estimating the stratigraphic ranges of species not preserved in the fossil record:  reconciliation of molecular and fossil estimates of primate divergence times? PaleoBios, Suppl. 221, 88.

211. Crouau-Roy,B., Lathuillere,M., von Segesser,F., Martin,R.D. & Ménard,N. (2001): Conservation and evolution of human microsatellite loci in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and genetic diversity of Moroccan and Algerian populations. Folia Primatol.72, 156-157.

212. Kümmerli,R., Möhr,F. & Martin,R.D. (2001): Paternity analysis in a social group of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Folia Primatol.72, 170.

213. Modolo,L. & Martin,R.D. (2001): Sequence divergence of mitochondrial DNA within and between free-ranging populations of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Folia Primatol.72, 173.

214. Pastorini,J., Zaramody,A., Curtis,D.J., Martin,R.D. & Forstner,M.R.J. (2001): Sympatric hybridization between Eulemur fulvusand E. mongoz. Folia Primatol.72, 176.

215. Zingg,J. & Martin,R.D. (2001): Temporal pattern of exudate feeding in pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea) in Ecuador. Folia Primatol.72, 193.

216. Pastorini,J. & Martin,R.D. (2003): Molecular systematics of lemurs (Poster). Amer. J. phys. Anthrop.120, S1, 165-166.

217. Soligo,C. & Martin,R.D. (2005): Primate ancestral body mass revisited. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop., Suppl.40, 194-195.

218. Martin,R.D. (2008): Primate evolution: The general framework revisited. Primate Eye96 (special issue), 102.

219. Davion,E. & Martin,R.D. (2008): Why do nocturnal primates have cones? Primate Eye96 (special issue), 215.

220. Davion,E., and Martin,R.D. (2009): Do colugos have genes for color vision? Am. J. Primatol.71, 78.

221. Yao, L. & Martin, R.D. (2011) Can island dwarfism explain the tiny brain of the Flores hominid? Am. J. Primatol.73, 111.

 

f. GENERAL ARTICLES

222. Martin,R.D. (1966): Sind Spitzhörnchen wirklich Vorfahren der Affen? Umschau Wiss. Techn.66, 437-438.

223. Martin,R.D. (1968): Not primates after all. Animals  10,  488-490.

224. Martin,R.D. (1970): Exile for survival: the aye-aye. World Wildlife News  1970, 8-9.

225.  Martin,R.D. (1972): The Oxford Expedition to Madagascar 1968. Bull. Oxf. Univ. Explor. Club17, 151-171.

226. Martin, R.D. (1973) The biological basis for human behaviour. New Era54 (1), 24-25.

227. Martin,R.D. (1973): Madagascar: The island continent. pp. 82-83 in: The Mitchell Beazley Atlas of World Wildlife. (ed. Huxley,J.S.). Mitchell Beazley Publishers Ltd.: London.

228. Martin,R.D. (1975): Ascent of the primates. Nat. Hist. (N.Y.)  84, 52-61.

229. Martin,R.D. (1975): Strategies of reproduction. Nat. Hist. (N.Y.)  84, 48-57.

230. Martin,R.D. (1976): Breeding great apes in captivity. New Scientist  72, 100-102.

231. Martin,R.D. (1976): How to plant a family tree: Searching for our ancestors among the mouse lemurs of Madagascar. Animal Kingdom  79, 4-11.

232. Martin,R.D. (1976): Wellcome Institute of Comparative Physiology: Scientific Report 1973-1975. J. Zool., Lond.  178, 515-528.

233. Martin,R.D. (1977): Man is not an onion. New Scientist  75, 283-285.

234. Martin,R.D. (1978): Wellcome Laboratories of Comparative Physiology: Scientific Report, 1975-1977. J. Zool., Lond.  185, 358-370.

235. Martin,R.D. & Bearder,S.K. (1979): Radio bush baby. Nat. Hist. (N.Y.)  88, 76-81.

236. Martin,R.D. (1979): First discovery of fossil tree shrews. Nature, Lond.  281, 178. (News  and Views)

237. Martin,R.D. (1980): Le plus ancien des primates n'est pas un primate. La Recherche  11, 469-471.

238. Martin,R.D. (1980): Body temperature, activity and energy costs. Nature, Lond.283, 335-336. (News and Views)

239. Martin,R.D. (1980): Sexual dimorphism and the evolution of higher primates. Nature, Lond.287, 273-275. (News and Views)

240. Martin,R.D. (1981): Well-groomed predecessors. Nature, Lond.  289, 536. (News and Views)

241. Martin,R.D. & May,R.M. (1981): Outward signs of breeding. Nature, Lond.  293, 7-9. (News and Views)

242. Martin,R.D. (1982): Et tu, tree shrew. Nat. Hist. (N.Y.)  91, 26-33.

243. Martin,R.D. (1984): Apes. pp 412-413 in: The Encyclopaedia of Mammals, vol. 1. (ed. Macdonald,D.). George Allen & Unwin: London.

244. Martin,R.D. (1984): Dwarf and mouse lemurs. pp 326-327 in: The Encyclopaedia of Mammals, vol. 1. (ed. Macdonald,D.). George Allen & Unwin: London.

245. Martin,R.D. (1984): Tree shrews. pp 440-445 in: The Encyclopaedia of Mammals, vol. 1. (ed. Macdonald,D.). George Allen & Unwin: London.

246. Martin,R.D. (1985): Fossil tarsier from Africa. Nature, Lond.  313, 430-431. (News and Views)

247. Martin,R.D. (1986): Are fruit bats primates? Nature, Lond.  320, 482-483. (News and Views)

248. Martin,R.D. (1987): Long night for owl monkeys. Nature, Lond.326, 639-640. (News and Views)

249. Martin,R.D. & Harvey,P.H. (1987): Human bodies of evidence. Nature, Lond.330, 697-698. (News and Views)

250. Martin,R.D. (1987): Eocene primates in danger. Folia Primatol.  48, 221-222.

251. Martin,R.D. (1988): Several steps forward for Eocene primates. Nature, Lond. 331, 660-661. (News and Views)

252. Martin,R.D. (1990): Some relatives take a dive. Nature, Lond.  345, 291-292. (News and Views)

253. Martin,R.D. (1990): Des os et des génes. Science et Vie hors Série  173, 4-9.

254. Martin,R.D. (1991): New fossils and primate origins. Nature, Lond. 349, 19-20. (News and Views)

255. Martin,R.D. (1992): Wirksamer Artenschutz: ein Spektrum von Management-Aufgaben. Unizürich1992 (3), 8-10.

256. Martin,R.D. (1992): Paternity in primates. Karger Gazette54, 2-3.

257. Martin,R.D. (1993/1994): Studies of the "poor sister group". Evol. Anthrop.2, 192-195.

258. Martin,R.D. (1994): Primate palaeontology: Bonanza at Shanghuang. Nature, Lond.368, 586. (News and Views)

259. Martin,R.D. (1994): Capacidad cerebral y evolución humana. Investigación y Ciencia219, 70-77.

260. Martin,R.D. (1995): La taille du cerveau et l'évolution humaine. Pour la Science210, 60-67.

261. Martin,R.D. (1995): Hirngrösse und menschliche Evolution. Spektrum der Wissenschaften 1995 (9), 48-55.

262.  Martin,R.D. (1995): Tribute: Gerald Durrell 1925-1995. Biodiv. Conserv. 4, 531-534.

263. Martin,R.D. (1996): Das Gehirn oder Sinn und Unsinn einer Grenze. Du1996 (8), 24-29.

264. Martin,R.D. (1996) Geleitwort. pp. 11-12 in: Die Evolution der Zähne: Phylogenie — Ontogenie — Variation(eds. Alt,K.W. & Türp,J.C.). Quintessenz Verlag: Berlin.

265. Martin,R.D. (1999) La taille du cerveau et l'évolution humaine. pp. 52-59 in: Les Origines de l'Humanité. (ed. Hublin,J.-J.). Paris: Pour la Science.

266. Martin,R.D. (1999): Anthropologie heute. Unijournal 1999 (4), 4-6.

267. Martin,R.D. (2000): Hirngrösse und menschliche Evolution. Spektrum der Wiss., Dossier3/2000, 72-79.

268. Martin,R.D. (2001): Neuer Blick auf den Menschen. Unimagazin2001 (2), 26-29.

269. Martin,R.D. (2001): Apes. pp 396-397 in: The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. (ed. Macdonald,D.W.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

270. Martin,R.D. (2001): Tree shrews. pp 426-431 in: The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. (ed. Macdonald,D.W.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

271. Martin,R.D. (2001). Primates, evolution of. pp. 12032-12038 in: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. (eds. Smelser,N.J. & Baltes,P.B.). Elsevier Science Ltd.: Amsterdam.

272. Martin, R. D. (2003). Palaeontology: Combing the primate record. Nature, Lond.422, 388. (News and Views)

273. Martin,R.D. (2003): Foreword. pp. xi-xx in: Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. (eds. Kappeler,P.M. & Periera,M.E.). University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

274. Martin,R.D. (2003): Foreword. pp. xv-xxv in: Field and Laboratory Methods in Primatology: A Practical Guide. (eds. Setchell,J.M. & Curtis,D.J.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

275. Martin,R.D. (2003): Contributions of molecular genetics to phylogenetics. pp. 26-35. in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 12: Mammals I:(eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

276. Martin,R.D. (2003): Life history and reproduction. pp. 89-100 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 12: Mammals I. (eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

277. Martin,R.D. (2003): Scandentia: Tree shrews. pp. 289-298 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 13: Mammals II. (eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

278. Martin,R.D. (2003): Dermoptera: Colugos. pp. 299-305 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 13: Mammals II:(eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

279. Martin,R.D. (2003): Primates. pp. 1-12 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Mammals III. (eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

280. Martin,R.D. (2003): Lorises and pottos. pp. 13-22 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Mammals III. (eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

281. Martin,R.D. (2003): Bushbabies. pp. 23-34. in:Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Mammals III:(eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

282. Martin,R.D. (2003): Dwarf lemurs and mouse lemurs. pp. 35-45 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Mammals III.(eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

283. Martin,R.D. (2003): Night monkeys. pp. 135-142 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Mammals III.(eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

284. Martin,R.D. (2003): Old World monkeys I: Colobinae. pp. 171-186 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Mammals III. (eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

285. Martin,R.D. (2003): Old World monkeys II: Cercopithecinae. pp. 187-206 in: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Mammals III. (eds. Kleiman,D.G., Geist,V., Hutchins,M. & McDade,M.C.). Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan.

286. Martin,R.D. (2004): Chinese lantern for early primates. Nature, Lond.427, 22-23. (News and Views)

287. Pestle,W.J., Martin,R.D. & Colvard,M. (2008) How old was Magdalenian Girl at death: The Field Museum responds to Dr. Sperber’s comments. AAOMS TodayMarch/April, 6-7.

288. Martin,R.D. (2008) Colugos: Obscure mammals glide into the evolutionary limelight. J. Biol.7, Art 13, 1-5.

289. Martin,R.D. (2010): Foreword. pp. vii-xiv in: The Evolution of Exudativory in Primates. (eds. Burrows, A.M. & Nash, L.T.), Springer: New York.

290. Martin,R.D. (2011): Preface. pp. xvii-xxx in: Field and Laboratory Methods in Primatology: A Practical Guide(Second Edition). (eds. Setchell,J.M. & Curtis,D.J.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

291. Martin, R.D. (2012) Foreword. pp. vii-ix in: Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans(author Dixson,A.F.), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

292. Martin, R.D. (2012) Primer: Primates. Curr. Biol.22, R785-R790.

 

g.  TRANSLATIONS:

          293. German-English (1967) Wickler, W.: Mimicry in Plants and Animals.pp. 253. World University Library: London.

294. German-English (1970) Lorenz, K.: Studies in Animal and Human Behaviour. vol.1, pp. 403. Methuen & Co.Ltd.: London.

295. German-English (1971) Lorenz, K.: Studies in Animal and Human Behaviour. vol. 2, pp. 336. Methuen & Co.Ltd.: London.

296. German-English (1973) von Holst, E.: The Behavioural Physiology of Animals and Man. vol.1, pp. 341. Methuen & Co.Ltd.: London.

297. French-English (1977) Charles-Dominique, P.: Ecology and Behaviour of Nocturnal Primates. pp. 266. Duckworth: London.

 

298. German-English (1979) Lorenz, K.: The Year of the Greylag Goose. pp. 199. Eyre Methuen Ltd.: London.

299. German-English (1991) Lorenz, K.: Here am I  –  Where are You? pp. 270. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: New York.

300. German-English (1995) Lorenz, K.: The Natural Science of the Human Species: An Introduction to Comparative Behavioural Research. The "Russian Manuscript". pp. 337. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.

301. French-English (2013) PETTER, J.-J. Primates. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.

Work experience

1969-1974: Lecturer in Physical Anthropology University College London

1974-1978: Senior Research Fellow, in charge of the Wellcome Laboratories of Comparative Physiology, Zoological Society of London

1975: Visiting Professor, Physical Anthropology, Yale University (USA)

1978-1982: Reader in Physical Anthropology, University College London

1978-1982: Visiting Professor in Zoology, Birkbeck College, London (organiser of Primate Biology course)

1982-1986: Professor of Physical Anthropology, University College London

1983: Professeur Associé, Musée de l'Homme, Paris, France

1986-2001: Professor and Director, Anthropologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Zürich-Irchel, Switzerland

2001-2003: Vice President for Academic Affairs, The Field Museum, Chicago

2003-2006: Provost, The Field Museum, Chicago

2006-present: A. Watson Armour III Curator of Biological Anthropology, The Field Museum, Chicago

Professional affiliations

2001-present: Member of the Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago

2001-present: Adjunct Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Chicago

2003-present: Adjunct Professor, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Chicago

2010-present: Adjunct Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago