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Published: October 19, 2012

Fieldwork on "The Bats of Kenya"

Bruce Patterson, MacArthur Curator of Mammals, Integrative Research Center

MacArthur Curator Bruce Patterson (Zoology-Mammals) just returned from a three-week trip to Kenya's South Coast.  Three counties--Kwale, Mombasa, and Kilifi, lying between Malindi and the Tanzanian border--harbor Kenya's richest bat faunas.  Many congregate in the coral caves which line the coastal plain.  Some of these colonies contain more than 100,000 individual bats and virtually all contain multiple bat species.  The caves are used by both fruit bats and insectivorous bats, and it does not take long to appreciate that each bat species uses particular roosting sites within the caves.  Some are restricted to well-lit, well ventilated parts of caves, while other only inhabit caves that offer dark, secluded, and poorly ventilated pockets.

MacArthur Curator Bruce Patterson (Zoology-Mammals) just returned from a three-week trip to Kenya's South Coast.  Three counties--Kwale, Mombasa, and Kilifi, lying between Malindi and the Tanzanian border--harbor Kenya's richest bat faunas.  Many congregate in the coral caves which line the coastal plain.  Some of these colonies contain more than 100,000 individual bats and virtually all contain multiple bat species.  The caves are used by both fruit bats and insectivorous bats, and it does not take long to appreciate that each bat species uses particular roosting sites within the caves.  Some are restricted to well-lit, well ventilated parts of caves, while other only inhabit caves that offer dark, secluded, and poorly ventilated pockets.

Together with colleagues from Karatina University (Paul Webala), National Museums of Kenya (Ruth Makena), Chepkoilel University (David Wechuli), and Kenya Wildlife Services (Sintoiya Taiti), I sampled more than a dozen caves, a national park, a national reserve, and several forests.  A focal part of our work was to record the echolocation calls of the insectivorous bat species in a portable flight chamber.  Released into this chamber, a bat seeking an exit emits ultrasonic signals which are recorded by Webala's Anabat insturment.  Once Webala assembles a library of balls, he will be able to identify the bats flying overhead remotely--using the recorder--without the need to net or trap them.

These links lead to photo albums: Caves and Forests and Kenyan Bats

This one opens a one-minute clip of some of our field activities: YouTube clip

The Bats of Kenya project is a three year collaboration that also involves Carl W. Dick (Western Kentucky University) and Dave Waldien (Bat Conservation International).  Look for our upcoming publication, scheduled to appear in November 2012:

Patterson, B.D., & P.W. Webala.  2012.  Keys to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of East Africa. Fieldiana: Life and Earth Sciences, 6: 1-63.

And check back for updates concerning the next expedition, scheduled to take place in December 2012 and January 2013.


Bruce Patterson

I study several topics in evolutionary biology, focusing on the diversification, distribution and conservation of mammals. The breadth of my research is testimony to the facts that no interesting biological questions are ever fully answered and progress towards answering them invariably opens up a variety of others.  Curiosity, opportunity, and a bit of wanderlust have diversified my program and caused it to span two continents.

 

Density of terrestrial vertebrate species (savingspecies.org). Wonder why I study tropical animals?!

For most of my career, I have used museum specimens to study the systematics and biogeography of Neotropical mammals.  Collaborating with scientists and students in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile, I have worked throughout the Andes, Amazonia, as well as Atlantic, Valdivian, and Magellanic Forests. While documenting some of the world's richest and most highly endemic faunas, we regularly discover and describe new taxa of marsupials, rodents, and bats and use them in regional and continental reconstructions of phylogeny and biogeography. The program offers abundant training opportunities for American and Latin American students, both in the lab and in the field.  Beginning in 2011, I started a parallel project on the The Bats of Kenya with colleagues Paul Webala and Carl Dick.  This project is designed to document the distribution and status of more than 100 species of bats that occur in Kenya and to shed light on their ecological roles and current status.

Collecting parasites in the course of these systematic studies led to my interest in host-parasite coevolution.  Ectoparasites recovered from mammals and birds are used to reconstruct the radiation of parasite groups and to assess their distributions across hosts and geography.  These studies identify factors that govern the distribution, abundance, and host specificity of parasites.  Together with Carl Dick (until 2009 a post-doc here at the Museum, now at Western Kentucky University) and Katharina Dittmar (SUNY Buffalo), we have developed a broad range of studies on the ecology, coevolution, and phylogeny of these interesting flies.  Interest in the unstudied ectoparasite communities of African bats helped fuel our collaborations with Kenyan Paul Webala to survey the diverse bat communities of Kenya.        

 

A Hipposideros bat with an ectoparasitic Penicillidia bat fly

A second, derivative program focuses on host-parasite coevolution.  Ectoparasites recovered from mammal and bird specimens are used to reconstruct the evolutionary radiations of parasite groups and assess their current distributions across hosts and geography, factors governing their distribution, abundance, and host specificity.  Work on bat flies has been developed with Carl Dick (until 2009 a post-doc here at the Museum, but now at Western Kentucky University) and Katharina Dittmar (SUNY Buffalo) on their ecology and phylogeny. With NSF funding, we recently curated the world's largest collection of flies, which now guides our understanding of host associations and fuels the taxon-sampling in our phylogenetic work (also supported by NSF). Undergrad and grad students are involved in this work in Chicago, Buffalo, and Bowling Green. Interest in the mostly unexplored ectoparasite communities of African bats helped fuel my collaboration with Kenya Wildlife Service ecologist Paul Webala on surveying the diverse bat communities of Kenya (see above). 

Photo by B. A. Harney in Tsavo, Kenya (July 2007)
 

A research program that I am now concluding focused on the Tsavo lions, infamous as man-eaters a century ago but more remarkable because many of them lack manes. In a series of papers, I have explored the morphology, genetics, behavior, and ecology of lions in SE Kenya with Samuel Kasiki (Kenya Wildlife Service) and Alex Mwazo (Kenyatta University), Roland Kays (NY State Museum), Jean Dubach (Loyola University), Justin Yeakel (UC Santa Cruz), and others.  Our aim has been to understand this distinctive and environmentally-plastic trait (manelessness) at genetic, hormonal, histological, anatomical, and behavioral levels. Concurrently, we gathered information to mitigate the impacts of lion depredations on livestock to ensure their continued survival and the preservation of their habitats. Until 2009, this project had the help of volunteers from the Earthwatch Institute.

As detailed in Students, interactions with undergraduate and graduate students enrich, extend, and complement these studies. All four research arenas offer opportunities for student research projects and post-graduate collaborations alike.